Tuesday, December 31, 2019

American Beauty, directed by Sam Mendes Essay - 877 Words

â€Å"American Beauty† is the 90’s film version of a satire about the ideal American dream of living in suburbia. It was preceded by â€Å"The Graduate† in the 60’s, the â€Å"Stepford Wives† in the 70’s and â€Å"Ordinary People† in the 80’s. â€Å"The best films about the suburbs are inherently going to be those that peel back the veneer made of clean lawns and nice cars to investigate the real emotions beneath the surface, whether tragic, comic, wistful, or some mercurial mix of all three.† (Web Design Schools, 2008) In American Beauty the characters may look like ordinary people living in idyllic suburbia but at the same time you see the pain, frustration and regret that they’re dealing with. The cinematographer uses several techniques to convey the theme of†¦show more content†¦The camera never shoots them together to emphasize that they are not equal. Angela Hayes is the stereotypical High School tee n depicted as â€Å"pretty and popular†. She is Lester’s fantasy. She usually has full length shots in scenes where she appears as seductive, sexually savvy and the perfect blond. The cinematographer uses mense en scene when he places her in the center of the cheer dance at the basketball game. The camera focuses on her as the center of the group, perfectly executing every provocative move and puts Jane awkwardly behind her struggling to keep up. In another scene the camera shows the audience a full shot of Angela showing off for Ricky and his video camera but very soon the camera changes places with Ricky’s camera to show that he is admiring Jane in the reflection of her mirror. Even though Angela is depicted as the beauty in the scene, the camera allows Ricky to show us who he believes is beautiful. In reality Angela has low self esteem. Angela’s insecurity is portrayed in one of the final scenes when she is about to have sex with Lester. The camera flows over their bodies and the viewer anticipates the culmination of their desires but reality hits like a cold shower as the camera closes in on Angela’s face. The savvy seductress has become an apprehensive girl with too much make up flowing down her cheeks and a fearful look in her eyes as she tells Lester thatShow MoreRelatedAmerican Beauty : An American Film Directed By Sam Mendes1527 Words   |  7 PagesWhat does one think when the word beauty is heard? Some may think about physical attraction, while others may have their own perception of what defines beauty. American Beauty (1999) is an American film directed by Sam Mendes. The characters throughout the film experience their own idea of happiness, or the beauty in America, in different ways. For Lester, it is an uncontrollable desire to have sex with a young girl named Angela that is friends with his daughter, Jane. Carolyn, Lester s wife, hasRead More American Beauty, directed by Sam Mendes and The Virgin Suicide s, directed by Sofia Coppola2680 Words   |  11 Pageswhat appears to be normal equal reality? By looking at two different films it seems that the old cliche stands correct. Things aren’t as they appear. American Beauty and The Virgin Suicides give classic examples of how â€Å"normal† and â€Å"happy† suburban life is anything but. American Beauty, directed by Sam Mendes (1999) and The Virgin Suicides, directed by Sofia Coppola (2000), share many of the same themes even though the plots are contrasted. Underneath the layers of white picket fences, beautiful housesRead MoreThe Art of Sacrifice as portrayed in the Great Gatsby by F.S. Fitzgerald and American Beauty directed by Sam Mendes.1809 Words   |  8 Pagespreventing evil, is a fascinating art that has long intrigued humankind. In particular, two American texts have captured the essence of it , The Great Gatsby by F.S. Fitzgerald and the 1999 movie American Beauty directed by Sam Mendes. Both texts clos ely explore the responsibility of an individuals relationship with his or her society for the sacrifices the individual makes; from the disillusionment of the American Dream to how the characters are affected or destroyed by it. In the world of Jay GatsbyRead More The Color Red in American Beauty Essay1628 Words   |  7 PagesThe Color Red in American Beauty The beauty that addresses itself to the eyes is only the spell of the moment; the eye of the body is not always that of the soul. George Sand hit the nail right on the head when he said this in 1872. Appearance versus reality has been a central theme in many American creative works including the film American Beauty. American Beauty is a film that delves into your typical, middle-class suburban American home and slowly uncovers all of the abnormalities thatRead MoreThe Techniques Used in American Beauty Essay1140 Words   |  5 PagesThe ï ¬ lm American Beauty, directed by Sam Mendes is a ï ¬ lm about imprisonment and escape from imprisonment (Mendes, 1999). American Beauty explores the breakdown of a suburban family man whose life journeys from self loathing and emptiness to freedom and liberation but at the ultimate cost of his life. Mendes effectively employs a range of techniques to help convey the meaning of this ï ¬ lm such as set design, camera angles, colour and s oundtrack. Cinema often uses structured set design and cameraRead MoreAmerican Beauty Analysis999 Words   |  4 PagesThe 1999 American film, American Beauty directed by Sam Mendes and written by Alan Ball, is a story about a father who is sexually frustrated and has a mid-life crisis after falling in love with his daughter’s best friends. This is a movie where there are many hidden themes and symbols throughout the movie by the use of cinematography techniques and colour. The director, Sam Mendes, is trying to leave hidden messages and meanings to the audience without directly telling them by using narrative elementsRead MoreAmerican Beauty By Sam Mendes1008 Words   |  5 PagesAmerican Beauty (1999) is directed by Sam Mendes (also the director of Skyfall and Spectre) and stars Kevin Spacey which examines the â€Å"ordinary† occurances of a family who live a desirable life but are unhappy and stagnant. Kevin Spacey plays the role of Lester Burnham, a suburban father and who i s tired of his boring job and family. Within the film are many themes, the most important of these being lust and beauty. The film applies many visual effects to demonstrate the overall desired tone, andRead More American Beauty by Sam Mendes Essay2014 Words   |  9 PagesAmerican Beauty by Sam Mendes This essay has problems with formating #65279;  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In American Beauty, 1999, directed by Sam Mendes, we are confronted with the permeating images that have consumed mainstream American life. Mendes exploits these images as constructions that we created around ourselves as a means of hiding our true selves. Mendes is able to implicate us in the construction and make us active viewers by exploiting our voyeuristic nature. In American Beauty Mendes uses the voyeuristicRead MoreOf Mice and Men and American Beauty Essay1435 Words   |  6 Pagesinsights into the American Dream are offered through the novella Of Mice and Men and the film American Beauty? In your essay you must consider the influences of context and the importance of techniques in shaping meaning. Of Mice and Men, a 1937 novella by John Steinbeck and American Beauty, a 1999 film directed by Sam Mendes, offer various insights into the American Dream and are both contextually driven. Both texts present the possibility of different pursuits of the American Dream and portrayRead MoreDeath of a Salesman and American Beauty1220 Words   |  5 Pagescrash and thinks that he solved his family’s problems, which is success in his eyes. Lester Burnham is the main character of the movie, American Beauty, and his life like Willy’s is spiraling out of control. His marriage â€Å"hasn’t been a marriage for years†¦ as long [he] keeps his mouth shut† (Mendes).On top of that drama he falls in love with his version of the American Dream which is to have a sexual relationship with a high school student, Angela Hayes, who is best friends with his daughter, Jane. Lester

Monday, December 23, 2019

Chinas Threat to the Us Economy - 1054 Words

China’s Threat to the United States Economy For the last twenty eight years, China has been quickly growing into one of the largest economies in the world. China has accomplished this feat, in part, by radically changing their policies on trade and free market interactions with other countries. During this process, China has bought approximately one hundred trillion dollars of United States debt in the form of Treasury bills, notes, bonds, and Inflation Protected Securities (Amadeo). This debt has given China leverage against the United States which has enabled China to keep the value of the United States dollar high, while keeping the value of the Chinese yuan low. As the inflation of the dollar continues to negatively affect the†¦show more content†¦Instead, China could use their debt leverage to impact foreign trade policies and more importantly domestic political policies that budget how the United States spends its tax dollars (Elwell 22). China has become a perceived threat to the U.S. economy because of the in creasing trade deficit between the two countries, their ability to undercut production costs of similar products produced in the United States, and the amount of leverage that China has over the United States due to amount of money that has been lent by China. Although the United States has taken steps to close the trade deficit, such as convincing China to raise prices on their exports, there is still a considerable gap (Prasad). The United States government continues to print money that they simply can’t afford, therefore, relying even more heavily on China sustaining the value of their currency. Unless the United States is able to close the trade deficit and regain control of our economic flexibility, the problems caused by foreign countries owning our debt will remain eminent. Works Cited Amadeo, Kimberly. US China Trade Deficit - Why the US Trade Deficit with China Is Important. US Economy and Business - US Economic Indicators - US Economic News. 19 Mar. 2009. Web. 19 Mar. 2011. lt;http://useconomy.about.com/od/tradepolicy/p/us-china-trade.htmgt;. CIA - The World Factbook. Welcome to the CIA Web Site — CentralShow MoreRelatedIs the Rise of the East Viewed as a Threat or an Opportunity?1477 Words   |  6 PagesChina’s ascension to superpower status has caused many Westerners to worry. They worry that China’s sustained growth will hurt their livelihood and economic status. Others, however, see this as an opportunity to exploit new markets and to further world unity. This is an increasingly relevant debate as many have predicted China’s growth to continue at a steady rate in both the short and medium terms. This paper will examine the reality of the potential threats and the extent of the opportunitiesRead MoreChinas Threat To America Case Study1296 Words   |  6 Pagessays it must prepare to deal with traditional threats coming from Russia, China, North Korea and Iran, and at same time to contain the spread of extremist terror groups like the self-proclaimed Islamic State. Four to five threats t hat US faces right now comes from the Asia Pacific. Therefore, it is one of the most important regions for the US and its partners. In comparison among those America’s threats, while North Korea and IS are just sort term threats, Russia or Iran will stay behind China becauseRead MoreChina Rising Of China And China1505 Words   |  7 Pagesâ€Å"China Rising† is a non-arguable fact and the one of the most important subjects in the twenty-first century. The rise of China is a relative threat to the neighboring regions or other great powers. Further, some scholars also comment that China either will replace or has already superseded the United State as the world’s only superpower. China’s growth is too rapid and massive that other nations have limited or no opportunity to compete with. In the other hand, others argue that confits betweenRead MoreChin Facing The 21st Century1511 Words   |  7 PagesDynasty, it began its evolution into a flourishing econom y. During this period where different regimes came into power, three fundamental pillars were used to sustain the imperial system of government. These components contributed to China’s reputation in technological innovations as wells as its economic growth in the earlier centuries (Bergsten, 2008). When the Qing dynasty collapsed as a result of several contributing factors, the Chinese economy was derailed. The government, therefore, found itRead MoreChina’s evolving geopolitical role and its participation in the WTO.1419 Words   |  6 Pagesï » ¿Critically analyze China’s evolving geopolitical role and its participation in the WTO. China’s evolving Geopolitical Role: Introduction: In terms of geopolitics, it was been observed that China is among the three great powers, beside the United States and the European Union. According to O. Tuathail, 1996; Agnew, 2009, critical geopolitics intends to understand world politics in terms of the ways in which elites and publics actively construct the spaces of political action that areRead MoreThe Rise Of Chin China1562 Words   |  7 Pagesof its people out of extreme poverty and we can say that China attained a major economic power within the span of three decades. It became the world’s largest holder of foreign exchange reserves, manufacturer, and the largest merchandise exporter. China’s remarkable economic growth for the last two decades can even go beyond the United States’ size of gross domestic product (GDP) as well as inflict significant political influence in East Asia. Furthermore, China hold the largest and strongest armedRead MoreThe Rise Of China Is Destroying The United States1417 Word s   |  6 PagesThe debate on whether the rise of China is displacing the United States (US) as hegemon is a contentious debate. While scholars on the one hand argue that this is the case, others refute this by arguing that despite the increase of Chinese influence in the South-Pacific, it is still far away from becoming a global superpower. Using the theoretical lenses of Hegemonic Stability, Balance of Power, and Realism, this paper will argue that the rise of China as global hegemon lacks theoretical support;Read MoreThe Future Of Us China Relations Essay1654 Words   |  7 Pagessubject in the twenty-first century. The rise of China is a relative threat to the neighbor regions or other great powers. Further, some scholars also comment that China either will replace or has already superseded the United State as the world’s only superpower. China’s growth is too rapid and massive that other nations have limited or no opportunity to compete with it. By using intern ational relations theories to analyze US-China relations, there are three main stream theories commonly using toRead MoreChina s Foreign Policy Record967 Words   |  4 PagesThrough examination of China’s foreign policy record, particularly post-Cold War, a better understanding of the distinct approaches a realist theorist and a liberal theorist may have to the same event or policy, can be further explored through the lens of China. In his book, International Politics of the Asia Pacific, Yahuda states, â€Å"It is only since the end of the Cold War that China’s leaders have developed policies that recognize that the future security and prosperity of their country requiresRead MoreEssay China1364 Words   |  6 Pagesdevalued was not the only reason which affected the world markets, as during the recession, weak buying power of the customers forced them to buy cheap stuff made in China. Elimination of the textile quota in January 2009 also caused the increase in China’s share of the market (The Econoomist, 2010). In contrast with this, EU governments in December 2009, voted to extend the anti-dumping duty on shoes imported from china to protect their local industries (The Econoomist, 2010). On one hand China is seeking

Sunday, December 15, 2019

Brighter Sunnyday Free Essays

Of all the movies that I’ve seen, only â€Å"A brighter Summer Day† was the longest hours film of them all, a very large project for the Chinese-language film. This film was directed by a Taiwanese director, Edward Yang who made it all possible to direct 100 actors to portray different roles. â€Å"A Brighter Summer Dayâ€Å"was actually based on a true incident which happened during 1960. We will write a custom essay sample on Brighter Sunnyday or any similar topic only for you Order Now The story was also a mixture of Yang’s youth which can be seen in the film though there is a little variation from the original. In June 15, 1961, a Taiwanese high school male killed his girlfriend in Gulling Street without any reasons. â€Å"A Brighter Summer Day† was a personal vision which recalls both an actual street murder that shook the nation and Yang’s own childhood at the same time. The story doesn’t mainly focused on the gangster’s street rival in Taiwan during 1960’s but it’s story goes behind a young man who was experiencing a major upheaval in his own country in which he wants to overcome. This movie serves as an exploration of the novel which depicts the cultural identity of the Taiwanese. This film revolves around the life of S’ir, who was a high school student by then. The cast was filled with different characters which seem equally worrisome. His cast is filled with plenty of variables, but each character’s plight seems equally worrisome. His father was one of the Chinese mainlanders who went all the way to Taipei during the wake of civil uprisings in 1949. Since the film was set over the course in 1961, it gave a printed introduction which explains that state is now in uncertainty where gangs thrive on the streets so they should be careful about their children and keep them safe and under control at all times. The narratives of Yang jumps back and forth with different subplots which made it difficult to track, especially the shots that was taken from medium to long shots. Given that, the story telling skills of Yang made it possible to recognize some cues for each sequence which lets the audience trail the story. The most memorable scenes that revolve around the gangster’s school-age girlfriend have been smitten with him. They wind up next door, while they cut classes, and get easily attracted with the looks of the girl. Upon forming an endearing bond, Si’rs friends warned him about being close to the girl and should not let her become the cause of any bad blood. This part is very thrilling, and mysterious enough to watch since you really want to know what the story behind the murder is as if you are really seeing how it happened. Yang sensed that when the dark historical moment happens, driving and being driven become one. I think that because of this feeling, it made a narrative filmmaking that creates a new genre of modern experience. Literary, this film had hypnotically built a single act of violence when it reaches and end of one’s life which is inevitable and shocking at the same time. â€Å"A Brighter Summer Day† emerged as one of the finest film made in Taiwan. Even though the cast were all non-actors, the film was still beautifully made- shots were good, houses especially the interior were great, even the schools and the dance clubs brought a real effect that happened in the countryside during summertime. The film also created a good effect by inserting violence and serenity alternately. The film is a rhythmic and poetic evocation of a particular era. Its ironic title (in that there is no â€Å"brighter summer day† for these characters) is taken from an Elvis song that one of the kids sings at a nightclub. It is a truly exemplary modern masterpiece that got no distribution in the West but deserves to be hunted out at all costs by those who love and cherish the film art. You can also see other characters with singing careers that has been the source of frustration and source of income of the gangsters. The song which was entitled â€Å"Are You Lonesome Tonight† was the source of the movie’s title a song by Elvis song which was sung by some nightclub kids. This song was one of the artifacts that appear in the movie though it did not originate from Taiwan. The song captures the audience through its melodic sound and its giving such goose bumps effect when you hear it while it plays as a particular scene was shown. There were also several important props in the film particularly the samurai sword, radio a flashlight and a tape recorder as well. Older characters appear to be strictly adhering to Taiwanese’s tradition or to something else like Christianity. The older characters, when they appear, either stubbornly adhere to Taiwanese traditions or have grabbed onto something else, such as Christianity while other older Taiwanese seemed to be powerless and weak. Children somehow understand this but perhaps cannot dig dipper to comprehend it and despite the murder that was inspired by a true to life incident, this film sees a light of hope. S’ir’s father here was a civil servant with a high-ranking job and the accomplishments of his daughter. He often attends the best government-sponsored college and was very proud. If his son disappoints him, he butts his head against bureaucracy, hoping that he would get personal favors the system which he believes to have fair and firm regulations. Yang simplifies things by tossing a metaphor into the stew which made it so confusing in general when he narrates about the operation of the government against the people. The backbone of the narrative structure was formed by S’ir’s shifting morality when the tragedy befalls him seems to be heartbreaking which made the entire nation moved by it. The strain has been weighed down on him and at that time, his family seems to be epidemic in the country. According to my research, the film took over several years to finish because its preparation needed to be meticulous on its construction as well as the feelings that community might have. Because the length is almost four hours, it definitely shows a remarkable film which gave an epic quality of the film. Since the there are more than hundred speaking parts in the film, you should really focus in watching so that you’ll keep on track of what was going on with the story, which is a good strategy on capturing the audience attention. Without looking into the contradictions that it may bring in a political discourse, Yang personalized the politics and its complexities. The style of the film creates a paradox. He used I little bit of close-ups, which keeps it far away from his subjects but not so far in order for the viewers to judge them objectively and doesn’t’ lose the grasp on their concern. The main accomplishment of Yang focused on the narrative that he made, as well as the political and emotional chaos. Familiarity arose from the running time that goes on with the consistent political attitudes which was evident in the script assures that audience concern were given focus where Yang wants it. This happens without using too much cinematic language which in turn prompts the viewer to barely identify the protagonists. Yang was never intimidated throughout the film although he made as a very expansive scope of a messy autobiographical of such territory. Attached with the film is a nostalgia but not to the point of intelligence. Yang created a manifesto which obviously shows conflicting attitudes about the history of his country. We can see in the film that it was seemingly limitless to examine the country’s lamentation which a storyteller like Yang has done to probe the history of a nation’s developing country and its progress. For me, â€Å"A Brighter Summer Day† sure stands as a monumental achievement, and could probably be the greatest film among all modern Taiwanese cinema. How to cite Brighter Sunnyday, Papers

Saturday, December 7, 2019

Discussion about Renewable Energy consumption and Sustainability

Question: Discuss the literature survey on the renewable energy consumption and sustainability? Answer: Introduction Consumption is the key factor to achieve sustainable development as unsustainable patterns of consumption such as overexploitation of renewable energy resources, and using non-renewable resources are the major reasons for the deterioration on global environment. With the increasing trend in development, the expenditure of energy consumption per capita has increased in the last fifteen years by an average of one-third (Apergis and Payne, 2011). The consumption growth is expected to increase at a fast pace until 2020 at the same growth in GDP rate. Moreover, the advancement in technology has reduced the intensity of energy and material in products considerably. However, these advantages have been outweighed by the increasing volume of goods consumption. This paper draws attention to the individual decisions of consumers on energy demand in context of sustainable development. Literature survey Renewable energy consumption Ayoub and Abdullah (2012) defined sustainable consumption as the goods or services that will address the basic needs of customers minimizing the use of natural resources and toxic materials which in turn reduce the emission of wastes and pollutants to environment and lifecycle so that the needs of future generation are not jeopardised. Sustainable consumption is viewed as the process that involves negotiation and development of consensus. This significant process at some areas is seen to fight with the conventional market operations. Banos et al. (2011) opined that, all actors must be willingly engage in the discourse in order to achieve the new consumption strategies. According to Connolly et al. (2012), sustainable consumption has to be comprehended as a societal field of action, which is further characterized by the three significant interacting areas of action. Individual area of concern- This section is divided into two sub-areas i.e. demand-side area and informal area. Demand side area considers the household consumption activities and professional procurement activities of both the public sector and large scale private industries. The informal area include the private consumers who undertake informal activities i.e. informal work that is unpaid (Eichholtz et al. 2013).Informal activities are not visible on the level of demand and hence not oriented to market. Supply side area of action- This include activities of governmental bodies and companies to offer sustainable services, products and information. Socio-political area of action- This include activities to develop a general framework of governance for both by the governmental bodies, organizations and associations. Their activities consider supply-side, structural and individual area of action. According to GhaffarianHoseini et al. (2013), the above three actions are interrelated to each other. The consumer behaviour rather their consumption activity particularly depends on an appropriate infrastructure (i.e. availability of energy efficient household tools), supply side activities and socio- political measures (emission trading systems or existence of eco-labels). There has been a strong agreement among the experts and claims that awareness among the consumers is not sufficient for the implementation of sustainable consumption behaviour but brings about a significant change economic and social structures. As referred by Graves et al. (2011), the process of consumption is a socially constructed but historically changing mechanism. According to Hashim and Ho (2011), sustainable consumption is an ecological way of purchasing and using goods. The consumption behaviour of individual and society is highly influenced by a number of factors such as system infrastructure, specific lifestyles, routines and habit, and their social environment. Approaches to explain renewable energy consumption According to several Psychologists, energy-related behaviour highly force the role participation, peer networks, social context and macro level factors that contribute to the use of renewable energy resources. There is an ever-increasing debate on social dilemma in relation to consumption of energy and usage of green electricity (Howard et al. 2012). In both the situation, the behaviour of consumers and their cumulative behaviour mainly counts. Meanwhile, the social psychologists are focussed on extending their models beyond the light of conventional individualistic and significantly focus on the framework of holistic socio-ecological factor. According to the Kaygusuz (2012), a famous sociologist, who state that users does not consume energy rather they utilize to raise their family or operate business. Moldan et al. (2012) also opined that, users have little responsibility and engagement in sustainable consumption due to the centralised system of supply. In argument, Moriartyand Honnery (2012) stated that, the irrational behaviour of energy users acts as a barrier to energy efficiency and sustainability. Energy services Paetz et al. (2012) argued that determinants of energy consumption depends extensively on the renewable energy services i.e. whether the service dealing with heating or electricity, lighting or washing. Surveys on energy related preferences primarily refers to the choice between product alternatives i.e. replacement of products with renewable and energy efficient alternatives. Issues related to transport, in particular focus on the choice between transport or vehicles and less sustainable energy alternatives. Panwar et al. (2011) conducted empirical analysis to evaluate the affect of energy label on purchase decisions of automotive customers. The conjoint analysis shows that, the purchase decisions of customers are not influenced by the energy label hence shows they are less prone towards using the renewable energy resources. Empirical study on household appliances A conjoint analysis has been conducted by Richardson (2013), to study the consumer preference on using renewable energy alternatives in replacement to their household products. The study investigate the relative and significant willingness of consumers to pay for energy efficient products built out of renewable energy. Shi and Chew (2012) made an analysis on the impact of environmental certification on customer purchase behaviour considering the case of a wood furniture. The outcome of conjoint analysis shows that environmental certification is viewed as a positive product attribute, however the product preference of typical customers outweigh the importance of environmental certification. Stambouli et al. (2012) presented a frequent argument against the efficiency standard of sustainable products, in which the energy based product that represent maximum choice of customers is prohibited which in turn reduce the customer utility. However, it has been found out that, refrigerators that possess efficiency standards leads to increased utility for the average customers. In argument, Tugcu et al. (2012) states that his study on sustainable consumption claims that, significant impact of incentives on their payment such as loans or rebates can influence the choice of residential customers paying no heed to the level of efficiency in refrigerators. Green electricity The research on green electricity has been conducted by Apergis and Payne (2011) within the BMBF funded projects, on two consumer groups i.e. green electricity and solar thermal. In this particular research, randomly selected pedestrian were asked to about their preferences and motivation of purchasing and using renewable energy resources. It has been noticed that, buyers of green electricity are less sensitive to price in comparison to a group of non-buyers. None of the surveyed groups could estimate the difference accurately on asking them the difference in price between green electricity and conventional electricity. Ayoub and Abdullah (2012) conclude that, there has not been any effective marketing of green electricity with successful presentation of information. For instance, buyers of green electricity overestimate the price to four fold, however, non-buyers assume ten-fold higher price of green electricity on average. In argument, Banos et al. (2011) presents a conjoint analys is drawing attention to the preference of electricity customers. According to his research, customers pay more attention to the criteria of energy mix, location where electricity is produced and cost. On the other hand, specific attributes like the pricing model, supplier of electricity, the duration of contract and eco-certification plays a secondary for majority of private clients. According to his findings, consumers only prefer fixed price for a time of day or seasonal rates and they do not prefer to get locked in lengthy contracts. In addition, Connolly et al. (2012) analyzed the integration of renewable resources, its price, support to conservation programs, outages and customer services. The outcome of study states that, the willingness of customer to pay for reliability is an essential component of rational planning strategy for investment in electricity generation and transportation. It also acts as the key determining factor on optimal pricing schedule of electricity. Eichholtz et al. (2013) extended the conjoint research by Connolly et al. (2012), and based on the previous studies, he analyzed other significant attributes like type and amount of renewable energy, compound with other services, charitable contributions, minimization on voltage fluctuations, billing options, etc. The argument raises on evaluating the outcome that states, customers are highly concerned about the renewable energy offered by the suppliers. According to the estimation, customers are willing to pay on an average of 2.1 cents per KwH for a supplier who make use of 100% hydro energy than for the supplier who uses no renewable sources. Similarly, customers pay 1.48c more for suppliers using 100% wind than the ones with no renewable energy. Studies conducted by Graves et al. (2011), shows that consumers do not justify their decisions of renewable energy consumption by the concern of sustainable environment, even if their consumption pattern decreases the negative impact. In argument, Hashim and Ho (2011) demonstrate that consumers purchase more environmentally sound products. Now against the backdrop of the significant concepts like lifestyles, literature survey reveal indicate that based on the different need areas, the consumer behaviour differentiate significantly. Graves et al (2011) highlight on the fact that, the purchase behaviour of consumer is not predictable between the aspects of green consumption and need areas. As a conclusion, Kaygusuz (2012) state that different products and systems has to be considered separately and findings of one system is not transferred without the difference is perception of consumers. Conclusion The literature survey confirmed the hypothesis stating that transparency respective to the cost of energy utilization is positively correlated with the behaviour of energy saving. This has been shown through the different measures such energy labels and energy bills. Prices of energy plays a significant role and positively correlated with sustainable usage of energy. Higher the price of energy, the household becomes more responsive to the energy saving criteria. The conjoint analysis made by the authors on significant willingness of customers to pay for A-labelled energy efficient products depends on the different degrees of their energy efficiency (Moldan et al. 2012). A study presented in argument focus on the impact of incentive payment method, such as loans or rebates influence the choice of customers on sustainable consumption energy efficient products. Moreover, from the literature review conducted, it is evident that, adoption of sustainable consumption is not possible without altering the framework conditions such as (infrastructure, price, etc). It is essential to analyze the individual consumption behaviour in a given context of regulation and supply factors (Moriarty and Honnery, 2012). However, the literature does not generate any cle ar hypothesis till now. Although, there are certain agreement on the relevance of consumer lifestyle and attitude, but these factors has not yet been represented as the significant determinant of renewable energy consumption and their contribution towards sustainable consumption. Reference List Apergis, N., and Payne, J. E. (2011). The renewable energy consumptiongrowth nexus in Central America.Applied Energy,88(1), 343-347. Ayoub, M., and Abdullah, A. Z. (2012). Critical review on the current scenario and significance of crude glycerol resulting from biodiesel industry towards more sustainable renewable energy industry.Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,16(5), 2671-2686. Banos, R., Manzano-Agugliaro, F., Montoya, F. G., Gil, C., Alcayde, A., and Gmez, J. (2011). Optimization methods applied to renewable and sustainable energy: A review.Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,15(4), 1753-1766. Connolly, D., Lund, H., Mathiesen, B. V., Pican, E., and Leahy, M. (2012). The technical and economic implications of integrating fluctuating renewable energy using energy storage.Renewable Energy,43, 47-60. Eichholtz, P., Kok, N., and Quigley, J. M. (2013). The economics of green building.Review of Economics and Statistics,95(1), 50-63. GhaffarianHoseini, A., Dahlan, N. D., Berardi, U., GhaffarianHoseini, A., Makaremi, N., and GhaffarianHoseini, M. (2013). Sustainable energy performances of green buildings: A review of current theories, implementations and challenges.Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,25, 1-17. Graves, C., Ebbesen, S. D., Mogensen, M., and Lackner, K. S. (2011). Sustainable hydrocarbon fuels by recycling CO 2 and H 2 O with renewable or nuclear energy.Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,15(1), 1-23. Hashim, H., and Ho, W. S. (2011). Renewable energy policies and initiatives for a sustainable energy future in Malaysia.Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,15(9), 4780-4787. Howard, B., Parshall, L., Thompson, J., Hammer, S., Dickinson, J., and Modi, V. (2012). Spatial distribution of urban building energy consumption by end use.Energy and Buildings,45, 141-151. Kaygusuz, K. (2012). Energy for sustainable development: A case of developing countries.Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,16(2), 1116-1126. Moldan, B., Janoukov, S., and Hk, T. (2012). 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Friday, November 29, 2019

Suffrage Essay Example

Suffrage Essay When discussing the history of the suffrage movement in America, there are three main and distinct groups which first must be identified. The order in which they will be covered, occur in the timeline of when they were allowed to participate in the democratic process in the United States of America.   It has taken centuries but the number of people who have been allowed to vote in the political process has been expanding since the inception of this country. In an attempt to distance itself from the monarchs and societies of the few, the United States of America, upon its inception, gave the right to vote to a greater degree of people than the majority of countries in the world.However, at this time, a large portion of the country; mainly women and minorities were excluded from voting. After a great deal of lobbying and tireless effort my the fearless leaders of their day, the vote is now expanded to include in this country, all people over the age of eighteen who are not in prison and not in this country illegally. As a result, the United States of America has had a long history of exclusionary practices when giving the right to vote to its citizens.   Despite this, the people have a greater voice in the democratic process, than in most countries around the world.When studying the suffrage movement of African Americans, it is important to see beyond the dates of the legislature in order to come to a conclusion as to when exactly African Americans were allowed to vote. Formally, the 15th amendment gave the right to vote to African Americans and anyone regardless of their race. â€Å"Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.†[1] The date in which this legislation was approved in Congress was February 3, 1870.[2] However, African Americans would not achieve full suffrage until nearly a hundred years later.The reason for this is the presence of the oppressive Jim Crow laws of the South during this time. Reconstruction would end in 1877 as Republicans in the North became tired of the fight to attempt to give African Americans equality under the Constitution and withdrew from the region in 1877. Southern legislation promptly sought to return African Americans back to a quasi form of slavery in which the clear lines of master and servant were reestablished. In an attempt to accomplish just that, Grandfather clauses were enacted. This was a blatant attempt to keep African Americans from voting. From 1890 until 1910, African Americans who were attempting to vote, had to prove that their grandfather been allowed to vote. This was an impossible task as many applicants had neither the ability to state that their fathers were able to vote, let alone their grandfathers. Not until Guinn vs The United S tates was the law pronounced unconstitutional.[3]Full suffrage would be given to African Americans and other people of color in the 1965 Voting Rights Act. It stated that no person, on the bass of their color, could be excluded from voting. It served as one of the most important civil rights acts in the history of this country.   Only after the efforts of millions of people of color and the detailed efforts of the famous: Frederick Douglas, the formation of the NAACP and Martin Luther King Jr. to name a few, the Voting Rights Act serves as one of the most important pieces of legislation and was renewed for another twenty five years in 2006 by President Bush. As it is now seen as absolutely essential to the democratic process, it is very unlikely that the law will ever be repealed. The country would now see such actions and counterproductive to the democratic process.Women were the next group to receive the right to vote. As it is the case with most events in history, the 19th amen dment, passed in 1920, has garnished support for the past century in this country but it never could attract enough support in order to allow ratification. Since the late 18th century when the wife of John Adams, Abigail Adams attempted to provoke his husband and an eventual signer of the Declaration of Independence, to â€Å"remember the ladies† as a cry for women’s equality. The 1848 Seneca Falls Convention also served as a formal declaration of the rights which women felt were theirs, not for the asking as God had given them the right to vote, but theirs for the taking. It states in part: â€Å"We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men and women are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; that to secure these rights governments are instituted, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed.†[4]   In 1870, the state of Col orado gave women the right to vote and there were a handful of other states which gave women the right to vote.However, it had yet to become a law. During the abolitionist movement, when African Americans were attempting to gain the vote, women were still not going to be included in this attempted expansion of the suffrage laws. Women were going to have to wait to exercise their right to vote. 50% of the population would have to wait until 1920 in order to exercise their democratic right to vote. The passage of the 19th amendment did just that and was ratified in Congress by a single vote. It states simply, yet profoundly, â€Å"Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.†[5] And with that, the other half of the population were now allowed to vote. As a result of the expansion of the suffrage rights of its citizens, America saw an eventual, although gradual increase in the number of women who were now seen in Congress. Also, now that it seems very possible that America’s next president could very well be a woman, the 19th amendment and its lo9ng struggle to be accepted, might now come to full fruition.The last major change to the suffrage movement in America was the passage of the 26th amendment, passed in 1971 and which stated that the voting age, in an attempt to encourage the political participation of young people in this country, was reduced from 21 to 18 years of age. â€Å"Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age. Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.†[6] However, the percentage of individuals, aged 18-24, is still less than 20%. Also, t here are a number of other impediments which prevent American citizens from exercising their right to vote and will likely continue to keep participation low.In the 2004 election, more than 68 million people voted. This was the highest total ever in a presidential election. However, this constituted less than 50% of the total eligible voting population and represents the apathy towards the political process. Under the law, all citizens of the country who are over the age of 18 and who are registered to vote are allowed to partake in the political process. Apathy and a lack of concern seems to disallow the individual from taking the necessary steps in order to vote. Also, unlike many European countries, many people in America are not granted a day off of work in order to go and vote.Despite the fact that many poling places are open in excess of twelve hours on election day, many people, especially potential Democrats in the state of Ohio during the 2004 election, were faced with stan ding in line for countless hours and thus, decreasing the chances that they would be allowed to vote, or that such impediments would convince potential voters to just stay home. Despite all of the shortcomings that the political process has in this country, it still offers the right to vote, to a greater degree of the population than the majority of countries in this world. If only Americans could realize this as well as how important and precious our right to vote is, more people would vote. Oppressive and exclusionary laws have been replaced by apathy and a belief that one’s vote does not and will not count, as the greatest obstacle towards one’s willingness to exercise one’s right to vote. Only time and chance will prove if this is to remain an unfortunate aspect of the American political process.

Monday, November 25, 2019

The Root Causes of the American Revolution

The Root Causes of the American Revolution The American Revolution began in 1775 as an open conflict between the United Thirteen Colonies  and Great Britain. Many factors played a role in the colonists desires to fight for their independence. Not only did these issues lead to war, but they also shaped the foundation of the United States of America. The Cause of the American Revolution No single  event caused the revolution. It was, instead, a series of events that led to the war. Essentially, it began as a disagreement over the way Great Britain governed the colonies and the way the colonies thought they should be treated. Americans felt they deserved all the rights of Englishmen. The British, on the other hand, thought that the colonies were created to be used in ways that best suited the Crown and Parliament. This conflict is embodied in one of the rallying cries of the ​American Revolution: No Taxation Without Representation. Americas Independent Way of Thinking In order to understand what led to the rebellion, its important to look at the mindset of the founding fathers. It should also be noted that this mindset was not that of the majority of colonists: Only about one-third of the colonists supported the rebellion. One-third of the population supported Great Britain, and the other third were neutral. The 18th century is known historically  as the age of Enlightenment. It was a period when thinkers, philosophers, statesman, and artists began to question the politics of government, the role of the church, and other fundamental and ethical questions of society as a whole. The period was also known as the Age of Reason, and many colonists followed this new way of thinking. A number of the revolutionary leaders had studied major writings of the Enlightenment including those of Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and the Baron de Montesquieu. From these thinkers, the founders gleaned such new political concepts as the social contract, limited government, the consent of the governed, and the  separation of powers. Lockes writings, in particular, struck a chord. His books helped to raise questions about the rights of the governed and the overreach of the British government. They spurred the republican ideology that stood up in opposition to those viewed as tyrants. Men such as Benjamin Franklin and John Adams were also influenced by the teachings of the Puritans and Presbyterians. These teachings included such new radical ideas as the principle that all men are created equal and the belief that a king has no divine rights. Together, these innovative ways of thinking led many in this era to consider it their duty to rebel against laws they viewed as unjust. The Freedoms and Restrictions of Location The geography of the colonies also contributed to the revolution. Their distance from Great Britain naturally created a sense of independence that was hard to overcome. Those willing to colonize the new world generally had a strong independent streak with a profound desire for new opportunities and more freedom. The Proclamation of 1763 played its own role. After the French and Indian War, King George III issued the royal decree that prevented further colonization west of the Appalachian Mountains. The intent was to normalize relations with the Native Americans, many of whom fought with the French. A number of settlers had purchased land in the now forbidden area or had received land grants. The crowns proclamation was largely ignored as settlers moved anyway and the Proclamation Line eventually moved after much lobbying. Despite this concession, the affair left another stain on the relationship between the colonies and Britain. The Control of Government The existence of colonial legislatures meant that the colonies were in many ways independent of the crown. The legislatures were allowed to levy taxes, muster troops, and pass laws. Over time, these powers became rights in the eyes of many colonists. The British government had different ideas and attempted to curtail the powers of these newly elected bodies. There were numerous measures designed to ensure the colonial legislatures did not achieve autonomy, although many had nothing to do with the larger British Empire. In the minds of colonists, they were a matter of local concern. From these small, rebellious legislative bodies that represented the colonists, the future leaders of the United States were born. The Economic Troubles Even though the British believed in mercantilism, Prime Minister Robert Walpole espoused a view of salutary neglect. This system was in place from 1607 through 1763, during which the British were lax on enforcement of external trade relations. Walpole believed this enhanced freedom would stimulate commerce. The French and Indian War led to considerable economic trouble for the British government. Its cost was significant, and the British were determined to make up for the lack of funds. They levied new taxes on the colonists and increased trade regulations. These actions were not well received by the colonists. New taxes were enforced, including the Sugar Act and the Currency Act, both in 1764. The Sugar Act increased already considerable taxes on molasses and restricted certain export goods to Britain alone. The Currency Act prohibited the printing of money in the colonies, making businesses rely more on the crippled British economy.   Feeling underrepresented, overtaxed, and unable to engage in free trade, the colonists rallied to the slogan, No Taxation Without Representation. This discontent became very apparent in 1773 with the events that later became known as the Boston Tea Party. The Corruption and Control The British governments presence became increasingly more visible in the years leading to the revolution. British officials and soldiers were given more control over the colonists and this led to widespread corruption. Among the most glaring of these issues were the Writs of Assistance. These were general search warrants that gave British soldiers the right to search and seize any property they deemed to be smuggled or illegal goods. Designed to assist the British in enforcing trade laws, these documents allowed British soldiers to enter, search, and seize warehouses, private homes, and ships whenever necessary. However, many abused the power. In 1761, the Boston lawyer James Otis fought for the constitutional rights of the colonists in this matter but lost. The defeat only inflamed the level of defiance and ultimately led to the Fourth Amendment in the U.S. Constitution. The Third Amendment was also inspired by the overreach of the British government. Forcing colonists to house British soldiers in their homes infuriated the population. It was inconvenient and costly to the colonists, and many also found it a traumatic experience after events like  the Boston Massacre in 1770. The Criminal Justice System Trade and commerce were overly controlled, the British army made its presence known, and the local colonial government was limited by a power far across the Atlantic Ocean. If these affronts to the colonists dignity were not enough to ignite the fires of rebellion, American colonists also had to endure a corrupt justice system. Political protests became a regular occurrence as these realities set in. In 1769, Alexander McDougall was imprisoned for libel when his work To the Betrayed Inhabitants of the City and Colony of New York was published. His imprisonment and the Boston Massacre were just two infamous examples of the measures the British took to crack down on protesters.   After six British soldiers were acquitted and two dishonorably discharged for the Boston Massacre- ironically enough, defended by John Adams- the British government changed the rules. From then on, officers accused of any offense in the colonies would be sent to England for trial. This meant that fewer witnesses would be on hand to give their accounts of events and it led to even fewer convictions. To make matters even worse, jury trials were replaced with verdicts and punishments handed down directly by colonial judges. Over time, the colonial authorities lost power over this as well because the judges were known to be chosen, paid, and supervised by the British government. The right to a fair trial by a jury of their peers was no longer possible for many colonists. Grievances That Led to Revolution and the Constitution All of these grievances that colonists had with the British government led to the events of the American Revolution. And many of these grievances directly affected what the founding fathers wrote into the U.S. Constitution. These constitutional rights and principles reflect the hopes of the framers that the new American government would not subject their citizens to the same loss of freedoms that the colonists had experienced under Britains rule.

Friday, November 22, 2019

Research method critique Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Research method critique - Essay Example Qualitative as well as quantitative research methodologies are regarded as two distinct approaches that need to interpret differently. In this regard, qualitative research is defined as an approach of exploring various issues, analysing facts, comprehending phenomena and responding to any question. Conversely, quantitative research is based on collecting data by undergoing through numerous statistical reports and other relevant data (Creswell, 2013). According to Nursing & Midwifery Council (NMC) Code of Conduct 2015, nursing research is regarded as the approach of enhancing public protection by ensuring the nurses as well as the midwives to remain fit into the practice in their respective careers. Specially mentioning, the importance of evidence-based practice with reference to NMC Code of Conduct 2015 lay in offering quality treatments as well as care to the patients by accessing valuable information and also considering past evidences or records regarding the above stated context (Nursing Times, 2014). The elements relating to robustness of the research fundamentally entail statement of the phenomenon, literature review, theoretical framework and ethical considerations among others (Ryan & et. al., 2007). Research work in medical field is executed from long course of time. The research work conducted by Lee (2013) focused upon generating greater level of awareness about good hygiene practices amid the nursing students. The research highlighted hands’ decontamination and usage of gloves as the better prevention measure for cross infection (Gray & et. al., 2013). The research work of Lee (2013) reveals about the decision-making procedure, which is used to evaluate the risks involved with nurses and other medical practitioners. Another aspect of Lee’s research is identified to make decisions as to when, where and how infections could be prevented by the nurses

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Trifles by Susan Glaspell Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Trifles by Susan Glaspell - Assignment Example and Mrs. Wright in the eyes of the investigators as well as the two women who played most of the parts in the drama, Mrs. Peters who is the sheriff’s wife, always understanding the job of the investigators but took the side of Mrs. Wright in the unfolding of the story and Mrs. Hale who is the neighbor of the Wrights and wife of Mr. Hale who was the first to learn about the crime. As the title connotes, the theme of the story is about trifles or insignificant matters which to the men in the story were the worries of the women. The county attorney presented the politician’s gallantry, wanting to please everybody just like when he wondered what men could do without the ladies in response to the worries of women over trifles. The sheriff on the other hand strives to please the lawyer by explaining the details of his actions right from the start of the drama. In the course of the investigation, the two women came across things that were considered insignificant to the invest igator but to the realization of the women, were the very important information the investigators were looking for to show the motive or cause of the murder. When the two women were left to themselves to find things for Mrs. Wright who requested some specific things she wanted fetched for her self, they found her sewing basket that revealed in part the evidences the count attorney and sheriff wanted to find out.

Monday, November 18, 2019

To what extent does personality predict employee performance How do Essay

To what extent does personality predict employee performance How do personality traits translate into individual's profession - Essay Example Behaviorists assumed people to be no more than a set of a myriad of learned responses to various environmental stimuli and reinforcements (Ayers, 2007). However, most of the contemporary research has opted to reject these two views due to their extremism. Contemporary research now takes a more commonsense approach in attempting to clearly define personality, the approach taken by this research is careful not to overlook some of the common traits such as sociability and persistence which are key in the determination of an individual’s behavior (Ayers, 2007). Personality traits are defined as various dimensions of a single individual’s personal differences they are essentially a set of distinguishing characteristics and qualities of a given individual. Traits determine the readiness of a person to consistently act, think or feel in a relatively similar manner when exposed to a variety of situations and stimuli (Ayers, 2007). The Different Concepts and Theories Used to Det ermine and Individual’s Personality and Their Personality Traits There are essentially two approaches that are used in the determination of an individual’s personality. These two approaches are the idiographic and nomothetic approach. The idiographic approach essentially tries to study the given individual’s personality as compared to another individual. In trying to gain a critical and deeper understanding of the individual, it looks at the person’s complexity, uniqueness as well as the richness. Over time, there are several key concepts and theories pertaining to personality that have been developed. One of these theories is the theory formulated by Carl Jung that is used to classify individuals as either having and introverted personality or an extraverted one. According to this theory, introverts tend to be reliable, shy, quiet and often like to plan things well in advance, this is in addition to their often being pessimistic. Inversely, extraverts ar e seen to extremely sociably as they often do not like being alone, they often tend to have a lot of friends, have an optimistic nature and tend to enjoy parties. In formulating this theory, Jung is seen to make a personality type matrix that is mainly based on four key functions that are normally used by people in the event that they are other individuals, situations or things. These four functions are feeling, sensing, intuition and thinking. According to Jung, everyone tends to make use of these functions but the inherent proportions tend to be vastly different. Jurgen Eysenck also developed a trait theory that has continued to be largely influential. The theory developed by Jurgen have been shown to mainly be genetically based. The model developed by Jurgen offers a means that helps in appropriately linking behavior, traits and types. The theory claims that each individual person essentially has a certain set of various identifiable traits which eventual form a trait cluster and the successive personality structure is then found to be hierarchical (Hayes, 2005). It was Charles Horton Cooley who was responsible for the development of the looking class self-concept.

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Primadelis Beginnings And Its Success Story Marketing Essay

Primadelis Beginnings And Its Success Story Marketing Essay The objective of this report is to discover about the starts of the well-known PrimaDeli that we all know. Well also be touching slightly on how Prima Limited was first established, the challenges it faced and obstacles it went through as a company before eventually making it big in the industry. And most importantly, how did it manage to make a breakthrough even after the undesirable food-poisoning incident. What is Prima Deli? PrimaDeli is a well known pastry shop filled with different types of delicacies. From puffs to cakes other variety of confectionaries to satisfy your cravings. Over the years, they have grown rapidly all over Singapore and providing good quality service to satisfy their customers. With the outlets being conveniently located in major residential estates, commercial districts and shopping areas and more than 30 outlets across Singapore, its no wonder their bakeries are recognised all over the island. Corporate History In 1961, Prima Limited was established when its founder, Cheng Tsang Man, built Southeast Asias first flour mill and the company. Prima was also known as Bai Ling Mai, which means a hundred year old wheat in Chinese. It is to represent the companys vision for corporate longevity. The company made the official listing under both Singapore and Malaysia business registries in 1969. The company not only has flourmill in Singapore but also in other countries like Indonesia, India, the Philippines and Australia. The Prima we know today is more than just involving into flour milling, it is now diversifying into other aspects such as signature restaurants, food manufacturing, baked confectionary products, even in property management and fields of information technology. And PrimaDeli is one of the successful businesses that the company has now. Launched in 1992, PrimaDeli is Singapores first one and only home-grown bakery franchise and also the longest-running Singapore food franchise. With the bakery outlets located in major business, residential and shopping areas, drawing a diverse mix of culture and races to their choice bakery products. PrimaDeli has been managed by the Prima Food Pte Ltd, which is the subsidiary of food and service conglomerate Prima Limited. Setbacks faced by Prima in the early years Just coming into its first few years of operation, the company was already confronted with umpteen financial setbacks which include the struggle of regulating the continual fluctuations uh their profit margins. In their yearly report for 1970, Prima addressed the problem of rapid increase of production costs particularly the vital raw products of wheat grain and also for the logistics of freight transportation costs. Due to the hike of price in production costs, the company had no other choice but to sell their goods and their by-products at higher cost in order to restore their lost and to ensure that their profit margin is maintained. What was done to counter back the problem Due to their concern over production costs, Prima subsequently felt encouraged to purchase majority share-holds in multiple primary industries and firms. The company took a majority stake in Prima Modern Machinery Pte Ltd in 1990 and took over the businesses of Goodman Fielder Wattie (Asia) Pte Ltd, a company that specialises in food and beverage area. These achievements have allowed Prima to widen their portfolio of long-term investment and consequently contributed to the cutback of production costs induced by the company. To further counteract the extreme price increase in market productions, Prima began specializing in export sales within the year itself. These measures paid off munificently allowing the company to restore its lost and claiming a profit of up to S$2.736 million for 1991 as to comparison to the loss attained in the previous year that came up to S$5.124 million. Achievements Over the years, Prima Limited had successfully grabbed a few awards to bring up its name. Some of these awards are Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) and Singapore Franchise Mark. HACCP which is the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point is a systematic and scientific approach in indentifying, processing, production and preparation of food so as to ensure that the food is safe when consumed. By attaining the HACCP award, it shows that Prima Food has a system which is universally recognised. This is especially helpful in allowing PrimaDeli to compete more effectively in the world market and it also open potential markets by increasing confidence in Primas food safety and hygiene standards. With the Singapore Franchise Mark award in hand, it goes to show that Prima is certified for having creditable professional standards in the sectors of business practices, management capabilities as well as business performance. This certainly puts Prima in a advantageous position because on the few top selected companies are rewarded with this award. By being listed as one of the companies, it just goes to show that Prima is one of the few top notch companies in terms of franchising management. Currently, all PrimaDeli retail outlets operate under the franchise system. What this system does is providing franchisees with premium quality products as well as a broad scope of professional training and help that includes outlet concept development and marketing. With this, the system allows for the franchisor to focus on food manufacturing, research and development while partnering like-minded entrepreneurs to operate the retail front. In which, it assures a steady business growth. Prima Deli has also received awards including Franchise Excellence Awards Mark in recognition for its successful franchise system. In 2002, Prima Limited picked up the Superbrand status in a celebration of its corporate longevity and significant contribution to the Singapore economy. This was followed by the 2004 SPBA Heritage Brand Award which recognises the companys market excellence over 40 years. By attaining this award, PrimaDeli is recognised to be one of the top brands in Singapore for market dominance, goodwill, customer loyalty and overall market acceptance. Recent years In 17 may 2007, PrimaDeli being the first home-grown bakery franchise and the longest running Singapore food franchise, has received the Halal food certification from MUIS, the Islamic Religious Council of Singapore a first for an established Singapore bakery franchise. It is after 15 years, that PrimaDeli finally decided its time to tap into the halal market and increase its customer base. With the Halal certification, PrimaDeli is now able extend its wide range of freshly-baked pastries, buns, breads and premium quality cakes to the Muslim community at 38 retail outlets islandwide. The Halal certification provides assurance to the Muslim community that the food does not contain any ingredients which they are forbidden to consume, such as alcohol, pork and other meat that have not been prepared according to Islamic rituals. With the Halal certificate in hand, has certainly put PrimaDeli in an advantageous position. Unfortunately, on 19 November of the same year, Prima Limited was confronted with one of its biggest challenges to date. Which is a virulent case of salmonella poisoning that caused all 38 Prima Deli outlets to be closed for a period of up to 3 weeks. The company was fined the maximum of S$5000 for selling contaminated food and for causing more than 200 of its customers to fall ill after consuming cakes purchased from Prima Deli stores. Sales drastically dropped to 15% in the immediate aftermath of the health scare, but were declared to be not as dire as the company had estimated. As a matter of fact, customers eventually returned back to the stores, and the companys overall sales actually rose 10% to 15% higher than their usual records during previous business years. Many new rules and regulations were implemented as a direct result of this case of salmonella poisoning, with all employees now required to undergo not just routine health checks, but also screening for salmonella. The company also implanted more cameras in production areas in order to monitor hygiene more effectively. Companys subsidiaries After looking at the organizations history and the numerous challenges that it faced, lets now look at how the company diversifies its services, not just in terms of producing quality baked products but also in cafeteria operations, fine dining and casual dining. Apart from food beverages, Prima is also into the field of information technology to further increase their profits and make use of it to full benefit. In this section, a list of subsidiaries will be given just to show how Prima Limited has succeeded in expanding their company. List of subsidiaries under Prima Limited Prima Food Pte Ltd -PrimaDeli Asia (M) Sdn Bhd -Confectionery Transformation (M) Sdn Bhd PrimaDeli Franchise (M) Sdn Bhd PFS Pte Ltd Prima Noodle Restaurant Pte Ltd PrimaDelis Vision and Mission The following was extracted from http://www.prima.com.sg/core_biz/Frameset/index_foodsvs_manu.htm http://infopedia.nl.sg/articles/SIP_1458_2009-02-11.html Prima is also known as Bai Ling Mai in Chinese, which means a hundred year old wheat. It is used to represent the companys vision of corporate longevity. PrimaDeli is Singapores first homegrown bakery and confectionery franchise. It was launched in 1992 with the mission to transform the local bakery and confectionery industry by adopting modern production and management techniques, information technology and strong branding. From here, it can be seen that PrimaDeli is living up to its vision of longevity of the company by inducing new ways to prosper their business live attaining a Halal certificate so as to broaden their range of customer in terms of race. Also they are always coming up with different ways to further improve their baking solutions through technology. An In-Depth Look External environment of the company Here were going to look at the competition that PrimaDeli faces against other confectionary shops. The figure below shows which 2 confectionaries customers prefer to than PrimaDeli. These percentages were base on a survey which I have done. Confectionary shop: Percentage (%) Polar puffs cakes 81.8 Bengawan Solo 4.5 Breadtalk 31.8 From here, it could be seen that clearly theres a huge percentage of people which will turn to Polar puffs cakes other than PrimaDeli. Theres a very fierce competition going on between these two popular shops. Lets now look at what consumers feel PrimaDeli should improve on. Again these figures are base on the response Ive gotten from my survey. Percentage(%) More variety in choice of pastries, puffs, cakes, etc 60 Reduction in price 10 Customer service 20 Cleanliness 10 This clearly shows that customers want PrimaDeli to provide more variety of their pastries because they want to see something new, innovative and capture their eyes and taste. Task Environmental Analysis Threat of new entrants is High There are more and more confectionaries sprouting They are mostly located in heartlandsHaving analyzed the potential external threats, it is time to look at the factors directly contributing to a tight competition among confectionaries in Singapore a Porters Five diagram. Bargaining power of buyers is High Theres a vast choice of confectionaries to choose from So, consumer will choose the ones that are cheap has a wide variety of pastries The consumers are the ones that will decide which bakery is the best Supplier Power is average Different confectionaries has different suppliers The quality of products depends on the suppliers There are still a wide range of suppliers to choose from Rivalry is Intense Number of confectionaries in Singapore is high There is an increasing number of pastry shops coming up with new ways to attract consumers attraction ;promotions Product and Technology Development is medium With the constant upgrade of technology, some confectionaries are using this to their benefit This aspect can be used to improve in their food quality Internal Environment Management Here Im going to do a marketing mix to compare both PrimaDeli and Polar. PrimaDeli Product The main product for PrimaDeli is a range of top quality pastries, buns, breads and cakes. Price The range of prices varies depends on the type of confectionary that youre buying. For cakes it starts from $15 and can reach up to $45++ according to the flavour and weight of cake. Outlets Up to date there are 38 outlets in Singapore Polar Product They specialises in mostly puffs and cakes Price Pricing varies to the products bought Cakes starts from $10.80 $45++ Outlets As of now, there are 33 outlets and 70 takeaway counters at petrol stations Observations and Conclusions Critical success factors To determine the critical success factors of PrimaDeli well have to once again look at PrimaDelis mission. Mission To transform the local bakery and confectionery industry by adopting modern production and management techniques, information technology and strong branding Critical success factors They should put in place their management techniques by producing and thinking of ways to further improve on their variety of confectionaries In order to have a strong branding, they should think of new modern production ways to market their products They should also keep up with the market competition and open up more outlets Strategic problem PrimaDeli should start considering in increasing the variation of their pastries because with more pastry shops coming up, they will lose out if they dont change their strategies in pulling in more customers. Also, they will need to have more outlets in order to compete with the various confectionaries out there. Strategic Alternatives and Recommendations PrimaDeli has been doing really well in terms of their diversification in other aspects other than just in selling pastries, like franchising into other countries. However, in the area of marketing of their confectionaries here, they are a bit lacking in putting in more concern. They should come out with different strategies and market plans to pull in customers to boost their income. Although being the first home-grown bakery franchise and the longest running Singapore food franchise, they still have a chance to lose their customers to other shops. For example, Polar puffs cakes. Polar is now gaining a lot of attention and popularity from consumers because they feel that there are more varieties there rather than in PrimaDeli. With the numerous promotions that Polar has and also considering the number outlets it has as compared to PrimaDeli, its only a matter of time before PrimaDeli will lose out their customers. Conclusion In all, PrimaDeli has done Singapore proud by being one of the longest running Singapore food franchise and also first home-grown bakery franchise. It has venture out into other countries and gained the trust of other companies to purchase and use their products. This is something that not many local companies have been able to done. PrimaDeli also have proven that their standards are recognised world-wide and so are their food beverages. However, PrimaDeli just have to step it up and be in pace with the current market. This is to ensure that they wont fall behind.

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Goals :: essays papers

Goals In many people lives, there are many different interests. This mean that a person may give special attention to something that they love to do in life. In most cases, that person would work very hard to accomplish their hearts desire. However, a person may feel life has nothing to offer him, or her in this world; People who think this way are either ignorant or are deceiving themselves. In fact, everyone should want to have a purpose or a goal in life. My goal in life is to become a better person in everything I do. In order for me to do so, I must create steps to accomplish this. By doing so I would have to work hard to reach these goals. One of my interests is to become a professional singer. Pursuing this, I made several steps a head. I went to Erasmus Hall High School and majored in music. Professionally had my voice trained to hit various Octaves. I also sung with different types of groups and meet famous gospel artists. I would say that I'm on a great start having this as a career. These are just some of the steps that I've made so far in becoming a professional singer. Another career goal is to get a good paying job. I plan to use typing to help me accomplish this. It would also help me with PC programming and office skills. I am also learning how to build computers from scratch. A friend is teaching my husband and I how to build a computer. Besides my friend, I also read books and witch video tapes that explain how to build a computer. As you can see I have a number of different goals I want to accomplish; but I have to keep telling myself that I am one person, and I can only do but so many things at one time.

Monday, November 11, 2019

Australian Aboriginal Art Essay

The aboriginal people mainly used ochre for artworks, such as on rock, wood, bark and the human body.Ochre is mined from particular sites. It is a special type of rock that’s heavily coloured because of the iron oxide contained inside, and comes in a variety of colours: yellow, white, red, purple (it is identical to red ochre chemically but of a different hue) and brown. It could be used on rock (cave walls, or just big rocks), wood (shields, log coffins, etc.), bark and skin, and artifacts. To get the paint from ochre rocks, one simply needs to find a rich coloured rock, ground it up, and add oil.Other materials such as charcoal and plant colourings were used to make black and dark green. Twigs, fibres and fingers were also used to get different strokes of paint, similar to the use of paintbrushes. Art is central to the Aboriginal life. It can be made for political, social, utilitarian and didactive purposes, and is inherently connected to the religious domain. Art is also a means by which the present is connected with the past and the humans with the supernatural. Art also activates the powers of the ancestral beings, expresses individual and group identity and the relationships between the land and the people. It was not until the eighteenth century, when the Europeans came to Australia, that Aboriginal art stopped being made only to fulfill traditional cultural needs, and this has only remained the in the case in varying degrees since. Contemporary Aboriginal Painting Methods In the 1930s, artists Rex Battarbee and John Gardner first introduced watercolour painting to an Indigenous man, who later used to create landscape paintings and were immediately successful and became the first indigenous Australian watercolourist. The word â€Å"contemporary† means modern or of the present time. Contemporary aboriginal paintings have adapted the usage of canvas and acrylic paints. Even though these arts still uses the traditional styles and symbols, the methods are a bit different. It is a mixture of the traditional and the modern culture. The main reasons that the European painting materials began to be popular so quickly is because using acrylic colours and canvas saves a lot of time for them and at easy to sell. You can’t really be expected to bring a big boulder to sell! Of course, even so, some artists still paint using the traditional methods. Different artists from different regions create different artworks because of their different surroundings and understandings. But even though their artworks are different, their subjects are all the same: Dream time. Aboriginal paintings and drawings are created to show how they live and how they think the world is made. Even though the materials changed, it doesn’t change the subject. Some paintings also show the aboriginals’ beliefs, but they are sacred to the tribe. These sacred paintings and drawings are only allowed to be viewed by the tribe and nobody else. 2 Contemporary aboriginal artists: Albert Namatjira was an Australian artist. He was an Indigenous Australian of the Western MacDonnell Ranges area. He is perhaps one of Australia’s best known Aboriginal painter. He was famous for his watercolour Australian outback desert landscapes, which were not in the symbolic style of the traditional paintings, but very detailed and colourful. Another is Barbara Weir. She is an Australian Aboriginal artist and politician. Her paintings include representations of particular plants and dreamings, inspired by deep Aboriginal traditions. She uses two distinctive stylistic conventions, which are linear and dot painting. Bibliography * http://www.mineralszone.com/minerals/ochre.html * http://www.aboriginalartonline.com/methods/methods.php * http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CKqA3RteH1A * Aboriginal art by Caruana, Wally * http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Namatjira

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Biochemistry and Technology Essay

What specific topic did you choose to research and evaluate? (2 points) -I chose genetic engineering/recombinant DNA technology/transgenesis of biotechnology to research and evaluate because that interests me the most, personally. List the resources that you used in your research of your topic. (3 points) – I used sites such as, wikipedia.org, and slideshare.net. Describe, in a few paragraphs, the biotechnology that you researched. How is it currently being used and/or what are the hopes for its use in the future? (10 points) -Genetic engineering is an area in biotechnology that induces cell alterations in any kind of organism. It is based on artificial manipulation and transfer of genetic material from one organism to another. Basically the cells coded in with the new genetic information will pass those selected traits on to their offspring. Genetic combinations might be useful but not often found in nature. Genetic engineering now a days, is used in medicine to produce insulin and growth hormones, for those who lack it. The genes in humans are isolated using enzymes produced by bacteria which cleave DNA at specific base pairs, and then inserted into a a virus. The virus then is inserted into the bacteria DNA, ten the bacteria produces the hormones, which are then collected and given to patients who most need them. The hope for genetic engineering is soon a cure can be found for diseases by either inserting a corrected gene or even performing a genetic surgery. Currently many pregnant women like to have the fetuses screened for genetic defects so it can allow them and there physician to prepare for the arrival of the child who may need to have special needs. Describe the positive aspects of this biotechnology, being as specific as possible. (5 points) -One possible benefit for genetic engineering is is that with gene therapy, a fetus a genetic defect could be treated and even cured before it is born. Specific traits or characteristics can be inserted in a species, for example pest resistant genes inserted into crops to enable more crops to be harvested. Artificially produce vital hormones or proteins that are essential by inserting the coding genes into bacteria cells.†¨ Describe the negative aspects of this biotechnology, being as specific as possible. (5 points) -Genetic pollution occurs where the artificially produced species reproduce at a higher rate compared to the wild species present and cause extinction. Species that are produced have side effects such as a short life span, prone to diseases and mutations and physical defects. Expensive and advance technologies need to produce and maintain genetically engineered species. Hybrid species created may harbor new statins of diseases or viruses that is produced from the altered genes. Based on your research, what is your conclusion about whether or not this biotechnology should be used? Be sure to explain your answer. (5 points) In my opinion, I think biotechnology can benefit us all in a lot of different ways, but only if we use it right and only if we are really in need of it. For example, I think genetic engineering could help actually save a lot of lives and troubles that one might have when born. If treated right, a disease or disorder can be cured before one is born.

Thursday, November 7, 2019

A look at the affect names have on the characters of Fifth Business By Robertson Davies

A look at the affect names have on the characters of Fifth Business By Robertson Davies What's In A Name?"What's in a name? That which we call a rose by any other name would smell as sweet." (Romeo and Juliet, Act II Scene ii) A person's name can shape a large part of who they will be. In the novel Fifth Business by Robertson Davies, the names of the characters seem to directly reflect some of the characteristics of that individual. The new names for those characters that were twice born better reflect who those characters are. Other characters, such as Mary Dempster and Lisolette Vitzliputzli's names provide some insight into their characters.After the war, Diana renamed Dunstable. His new name, Dunstan, better reflects who he is because of the many similarities between himself and Saint Dunstan. "Saint Dunstan was a marvelous person...mad about learning, terribly stiff and stern and scowly, and an absolute wizard at withstanding temptation"(Fifth Business p.90). Dunstable Ramsay had always been interested in learning, as evident from his childhood job at the local lib rary, his education at the University of Toronto as well as his lifelong passion for studying saints.English: Tomb of the Virgin Mary. Altar.jpg Ð  Ã'Æ'Ã' ...As a child, Dunstable would read about magicians and had a particular interest in saints. Therefore, it is entirely appropriate that later in his life he be named after a saint. Dunny also had many other similarities between himself and Saint Dunstan; many things during Saint Dunstan's life can be compared to incidents in Dunny's life. When Dunny was young, he was ordered by his mother to help Mary Dempster. Similarly, Saint Dunstan, "With his parent's consent ... served in the ancient church of St. Mary." Accordingly, the name Dunstan is fitting to the character of Dunstan Ramsay.Conversely, Percy Boyd Staunton renamed himself during the war. His new name, Boy Staunton is entirely...

Monday, November 4, 2019

WTO effect on Taiwan Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

WTO effect on Taiwan - Essay Example (Antkiewicz, 2004) In other words, the more internationalized the financial markets and the more liberalized the capital account, the more challenges the autonomy of monetary policy have faced. In fact, financial internationalization underlay both the Latin American financial crisis happening earlier and the East Asian crisis a few years ago. Experts and scholars, by drawing important lessons from financial crises, have, retrospectively, advocated a progressive approach rather than an aggressive one to financial internationalization. They have singled out relaxation of capital account controls as the bottom-line defensive measure and have even viewed a certain degree of re-regulation as necessary in the aftermath of financial liberalization and internationalization. (Cai, 2005) By doing so, the negative impact of rapid and large-scale international capital movements on a countrys economy can be minimized. Generally speaking, financial liberalization includes cross-border flows of funds, personnel and commodities. In addition to opening the capital account, it also includes expanding offshore business, establishing foreign exchange call-loan markets, and allowing foreign bank operations and branches. The following phenomena, which are independent in itself but not exclusive of each other, illustrate the connotation of financial internationalization: 1) The restrictions on the currency exchanges and other international financial activities of residents and non-residents (including individuals, corporations and financial institutions) are relaxed Domestic banks are allowed to establish overseas branches. Domestic corporations can raise funds by issuing corporate bonds overseas or by investing overseas. Foreign banks and corporations are also permitted to conduct reciprocal financial businesses locally. (Weixing, 2006) 2) International capital movements

Saturday, November 2, 2019

Understanding the Court System Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Understanding the Court System - Essay Example This paper endeavors to help in understanding the United States of America court system. To achieve this, the paper will discuss the case of Riley v. California heard in the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court determination in this case considered two individual cases. Both cases involved cell phone searches during arrest without a warrant of search. One case involved David Leon Riley stopped in San Diego by a police officer in 2009 for having expired car registration tags (Harvard Law Review, 2014). The police towed the vehicle and searched it. During the search, they discovered two handguns hidden under the boot of his car. The police seized his phone without warrant and searched it. The phone records showed that Riley was part of a gang known as the Lincoln Park gang the evidence from the phone also placed him at a crime scene three weeks before and his made the prosecution used this evidence to build a case of assault and attempted murder against Riley (Harvard Law Review, 2014). During the trial, the judge upheld that the evidence from Riley’s Smartphone was admissible because it fell under the exceptions provided by search-incident-to-arrest provisions. The trial led to the conviction of Riley and the California court of appeal upheld this ruling (Harvard Law Review, 2014). The second case involved Brima Wurie arrested by a police officer who observed him participating in drug trade. During the arrest, the police officers confiscated two mobile phones from him (Harvard Law Review, 2014). After searching the call log, they determined the location of a caller and traced it to a location where they seized drugs, firearms and cash. The prosecution charged Wurie with drug and firearm possession. The district court declined to declare the evidence from the mobile phone as inadmissible since the police acquired it without a warrant. However, the first circuit court overturned the decision by the district court citing that mobile

Thursday, October 31, 2019

Township of Twisted Water Boundary Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Township of Twisted Water Boundary - Assignment Example The process used and the allocation limits chosen were published in managing the groundwater resources of the Township of Twisted groundwater management strategy. To decide on the allocation limits, results from an earlier groundwater model (GRFAMOD, Dodson 2001) and the information gathered from the environmental water requirements assessments (SMEC 2001), was used. The GASFAMS groundwater model estimated the recharge, through flow, discharge and storage characteristics of the flow system. The groundwater model simulated a number of recharge scenarios to determine how much water could be sustainably abstracted from the system. The department follows a standard planning process when developing an allocation plan. A component of this process is setting allocation limits and the management regime. For the Township of Twisted area, we set allocation limits in accordance with this process. The yield estimate tells us how much water can be taken from a resource for use and what volume or flow is needed to maintain the ecological and social values, within and downstream of the resource. We also consider management considerations in our decision, such as reliability of supply, current use, future demand and the effects of water abstraction and use on water quality. The department applied this process to the Township of the Twisted alluvial aquifer to determine the allocation limits. An allocation limit is the annual volume of water set aside for consumptive use from a water resource. This includes the water available for licensing and the water set aside for uses exempt from licensing, such as stock and domestic. For administrative purposes, the allocation limit is divided into three groups of components: Involving the community is an important part of the planning process. Extensive consultation should be done to ensure setting the right management approach for the area.  

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Urban Areas Modify Climates Essay Example for Free

Urban Areas Modify Climates Essay Urban areas climate is often significantly different to the surrounding rural areas, this is why urban areas are often described as having their own â€Å"micro climate† the differences in urban climates are due to number of different factors. Urban areas often experience a phenomenon known as a heat island, this is a zone of hot air around and above an urban area which has higher temperatures than the surrounding rural areas consequently cities tend to be warmer than rural areas and the temperature becomes lower progressively as you move towards the rural area with the highest temperatures being in the city centre. Heat islands form due to a variety of factors which are present within cities and not commonly found in rural areas, firstly building material such as concrete and tarmac absorb large quantities of heat during the day (due to their black colour) and when temperatures are cooler (nigh time) the heat is released gradually warming up the surrounding area, this is why the effects of the heat island are more visible at night time because the city remains warm whilst the rural areas are much cooler. There are a large amount of buildings with glass windows within the urban areas, these have a high reflective capacity and reflect heat towards the streets were it is absorbed. Another factor influencing towards to the heat island formation is the heat energy being emitted from industry due to the combustion of fossil fuel which releases heat, domestic heating also contributes towards this, this heat energy warms up the air within the urban area contributing to the dome of warm air which is the heat island. The emission of hygroscopic pollutants from cars also acts as a condensation nuclei leading to the formation of cloud and smog which traps radiation within the area. Precipitation rates are also significantly different within rural areas, research shows that rainfall is generally higher within the city than surrounding rural areas, a reason for this could is due to the fact the heat island ultimately means temperatures are higher therefore lower pressures will be encouraged to dev elop above the city, also it means Evapotranspiration rates will be higher within the city causing more cloud formation. Convection rainfall is much higher within the city and this is because the heat island enhances convectional uplift, the city also produces large amounts of water vapour from industrial sources this also means that humidity levels within cities are usually higher The occurrence of Fog is dramatically higher within urban areas, the great increase in the amount of fog within cities is in accordance with the industrialisation of the city, e.g. In London 1700 there was 29 days of fog but by the 1800 (industrial revolution had occurred) there was over 50 days of fog, this statistic shows that the amount of fog is influenced by the amount of industrial activity within a city. The reason behind this is the fact that cities have a higher average number of particles within the air (due to industrial activity releasing pollution) these particles act as a condensation nuclei and encourage fog formation (usually under high pressure conditions) when pollutants become trapped within the lower atmo sphere water vapour can condense around these particles and cause smog to form. These were common in 20th century London. Smog can have devastating effects and can cause serious respiration problems for people and trigger diseases such as emphysema, more recently photochemical smog has been developing this is due to polluting gases such as nitrous oxides and carbon monoxide react with sunlight to produce a cocktail of harmful gases which can cause devastating health effects. Air quality within urban areas is also dramatically different than surrounding areas. Within cities there is a significant amount of pollution, there are different types of pollution and they have different effects. Suspended particulate matter is solid matter within the urban atmosphere such particles are usually less than 25micrometers in size and cause problems such as fog/smog, respiratory diseases, soiling of buildings. Sulphur dioxide is usually released from combustion of fossil fuels causes a hazard known as acid rain (due to its acidic nature) and this can corrode away at buildings it also contributes to respiratory disease s Carbon monoxide is also released from incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and is a poisonous gas that prohibits haemoglobin within the blood to uptake oxygen, therefore it is potentially life threatening. Consequently due to all the pollutants the number of â€Å"blue sky days† were the sky is visibly blue can be significantly reduced consequently reducing the amount of sunlight upon the city, there have been policies introduced in cities worldwide to reduce pollution levels and increase the number of blue sky days. The serious effects of poor air quality can be perfectly illustrated with Beijing were the public wear masks to protect themselves from the poor air and serious efforts have been made to cut down on polluting sources. The urban layout of buildings of various different sizes vastly affects the wind pattern in the upper atmosphere; there are effects on wind speed, direction and frequency. The surface area of cities which is very uneven exerts a powerful frictional drag on the air moving over and around this creates strong turbulence giving rapid and abrupt changes in both wind direction and speed, consequently average wind speeds are lower within the city. High rise building significantly disturb airflows over urban areas, they deflect and slow down the upper atmosphere winds, and this can creature strong vortices and eddies. These fast turbulent winds can become funnelled in-between buildings producing a venturi effect this can swirl up litter and make walking down pavements difficult In conclusion urban areas can significantly influence their climate and cause it to be very different compared to surrounding rural areas, urban areas cause numerous amounts of changes in the climate surrounding them and cause higher temperatures, higher precipitation rates, effect the air quality and completely disturb the upper atmosphere wind pattern.